Reasons to Envy Bihar

A large majority of students that qualified for the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) in the last 10 years were from the state of Bihar. IAS is the backbone of the Indian government. If it were not for these officers the government machinery would grind to a halt.

The model of property taxation called the “Area Detail System” (ADS) or the
The Patna model exists in Patna in Bihar. The revenue increased substantially after this model was applied in Patna by the The Patna Municipal Corporation. Even the United Nations liked it and is not being applied by several countries.

The cooperative movement is making great advances in Bihar, especially in the dairy sector. Co-operative movement in its modern form started in the year 1904. Now co-operatives and formal legal entities under a statute have been in existence for a hundred years and this is the centenary year for Co-operatives.

Bihar is highly dependent in grain production and 13 other states of the country buy rice from Bihar. The Begusarai district is the largest maize producer in India.

Interestingly Bihar is way head in per-capita deposits, getting around 7 thousand crores per year.

Patna rice (also called also called Parimal rice) is as well known brand of rice.

Ancient patna (Patliputra) was once the capital of India and Bihar was greatest seat of learning in the world. The ancient ruins of Nalanda are considered the ruins of the oldest university of the world. The history of India is the history of ancient Magadh.

It is here that the Buddha was born and Buddhism was founded. During this time the King of Magadh “Ashoka the Great” sent emissaries to China and Sri Lanka to establish Buddhism.

Black Psychosis

Psychosis is a dirty word so I don’t expect much appreciation for writing this. But we Blacks need to start owning our circumstances. Racism and discrimination persist but that isn’t the point here. The Black community has cultivated a belief system and mental state that have become entrenched into our DNA. I call this the “Black Psychosis” and in contemporary America it is just as responsible for holding our people back as institutional racism.

In its basic form, psychosis means a distorted view of reality, usually including false beliefs about what is actually taking place, which then impact how one goes about their daily life. Black psychosis is a form of group psychosis where deep seated emotions, distorted beliefs and behavioral characteristics may not be apparent in any one individual. However, when the Black community is looked at as a group, a shared pathological state emerges.

Any attempts to improve circumstances for Blacks are restricted from the start unless key aspects of black psychosis are recognized, understood and addressed. Key aspects of black psychosis include:

* Shame

* Fear and Anger

* Paranoia

* Victim Mentality

* Jealousy and Envy

* Entitlement

* Exaggerated Success

* Scapegoating

* Empathy

* Hopelessness/Helplessness

Aspects of Black Psychosis

1. Shame

There comes a point in a child’s life when he realizes that being Black is more than having darker skin and curlier hair. It starts to mean that he cannot feel what others feel. He cannot experience the pride of knowing his rich heritage. People begin treating him differently because he looks different. The child learns that Blackness comes with a stigma and it’s unsettling. Everything seems harder and he wishes he were someone else.

As Black children, we grow to realize that Blackness is undesirable. It is undesirable to mainstream America and to ourselves. American society sends a clear message. Images of beauty, power and intelligence are reserved for white. If not white, then maybe Asian or Latino but certainly not Black. The media and pop culture present role models for how to look, talk, and act. Well, Blacks can’t change how we look. And African-American cultural expressions are typically rejected by mainstream America as crude and unrefined, that is until they become co-opted through the back door. Even to children barely old enough to hop on a school bus, the message is plain.. No matter what they do, they cannot look as good, talk as good or act as white as the model. We soon realize that we are not only different, but our differences are stigmatized as undesirable. Suddenly, we don’t want to be Black anymore. We are first rejected by society and then we reject ourselves. Shame consumes us.

As we get on in years, we spend our time proving to the outside world that we are a proud people and we have something to contribute to society but deep down, we don’t believe it. We remain a shameful people. Who can blame us? Slavery is not something to be proud of. It is difficult to come to terms with the fact that our ancestors were captured in Africa, shackled, chained and shipped half way around the world, sold like cattle, and worked to the bone for over 200 years under the constant threat of physical, psychological and sexual abuse.

Slavery is an embarrassment and while it should be more embarrassing to the white perpetrators, it is far more damaging to us Blacks who continue living with it. Whites find it convenient to disassociate from slavery saying the atrocities were at the hands of their ancestors. They did not have a direct hand and, therefore, should be absolved. Or, they proclaim to be recent immigrants, arriving on American soil long after slavery was abolished. How can they possibly be held accountable? Blacks have no such fortune. We cannot turn a blind eye. We look in the mirror and the truth reveals itself. We are African and we were brought here against our will. We are the descendants of slaves.

This painful realization slaps us in the face at an early age. White 3rd graders proudly display their family trees during “show and tell”, tracing their lineages to the old country and inserting a coat of arms for effect. Black children shyly unveil sparse trees with broken limbs, proceeding from the shallow roots of slavery. Where are the bragging rights in this? As children, we are forced to confront our shame and put it on display for all to see. We crave the pride of our peers. It is a time when we want to fit in and be accepted. Instead, we cower in shame.

2. Fear and Anger

Blacks live in fear. Our history is filled with tales of violence and repression. The statement was emphatic, “Stay in your place and you may live. Get uppity and face the consequences.” Blacks tend to stay within a comfort zone. Comfort may mean sticking to our own kind, within our own communities and circle of peers. Those who move into the mainstream play it safe, careful not to ruffle feathers or rock the boat. When becoming outspoken, we typically pick our battles well, finding white advocates who are more sympathetic to our cause. But fear isn’t reserved for times of imminent conflict or confrontation. Fear travels with us every day. It strikes when the Black family drives through a white neighborhood and everyone stops and stares. It surfaces when the Black couple sits down at a high class restaurant and the vibrant conversation ceases. A young Black stock broker goes to the pub with some friends after work and catches the attention and frowns of belligerent white patrons across the bar. The college student is unsure whether to accompany his friends in Europe next summer because he has heard that eastern Europeans are blatant racists.

Blacks are afraid of the unknown and distrustful of the actions of others. We believe in our intuitive talents to size up a room, predict conflict and label others as racist. It doesn’t matter whether our fears are justified or paranoid. We believe in them. But the fear does not serve us well. It stirs up deep conflicts within us. We sacrifice the things we want. We move away from what is in our hearts. We choose a path that’s safe. We shun challenges. We become incapacitated by fear and complacency. And we get angry. We get fed up with the pain and fears and frustrations. We turn the rage onto ourselves and we hate ourselves more. The anger consumes us from within. Eventually, we act out, unleashing our fury on unsuspecting innocents.

Anger is the salvo for fear. While fear makes us feel vulnerable and weak, anger empowers us. We become stronger. We have the gall to defy our conscience. We put on airs of defiance. We see the wilting faces of our enemies and we are emboldened. We mistake their fear and pity for respect. We summon the anger to douse the fear and self hate. But the power we feel is fleeting. Eventually, we are left alone with only our thoughts and feelings. The pain and fear percolate deep inside and we are powerless to repress it.

3. Paranoia

Blacks believe that race is the predominant factor in every negative experience. Racism or racialization is always the cause of our misfortunes. We are continually victimized by white America who singles us out and prematurely judges us based on the color of our skins. A speeding ticket? “Of course it’s racial profiling because I was going the same speed as everyone else on the freeway.” A death sentence? “Murder is murder so why are Blacks overwhelmingly sentenced to death in higher proportions than whites for similar crimes? And it’s no coincidence that those crimes are prosecuted in the deep South where Jim Crow festers just below the surface.” Didn’t get the job? “It was because I was Black and that whole office was white. They didn’t want me anyway.” Hurricane Katrina is a great example of group paranoia and racial accusation. “There is no way that the government would be so slow to respond if most of the victims in New Orleans were white.” Blacks went on to level charges of blatant racism on President Bush, his administration (never mind that a couple key members of the cabinet were Black), the media and the American public. “The severity of the Katrina tragedy was due to racism”, Blacks claim. Take any situation, inject Blacks and the situation becomes significantly worse. This is what Blacks believe.

We even inject race into events that have positive outcomes for ourselves and our communities. We believe that when a white person witnesses something good happen to a Black person, they secretly whisper, “the only reason that happened is because he is Black.” In other words, despite achieving success, Blacks are paranoid that mainstream America thinks the success was undeserved. It is viewed as a gift and whites are more resentful and racist towards Blacks as a result. Black person gets a job? Whites think he is a token, a beneficiary of affirmative action or an unofficial quota system. Black person gets into Harvard? The school wanted to present a false image of diversity and political correctness.

Put quite simply, Blacks are paranoid. By injecting race into failures and successes, we are incapable of taking ownership of our shortcomings or taking pride in our accomplishments. Not only are we labeling all Americans racists, we are confining ourselves to perpetual victim-hood.

4. Victim Mentality

“Our failures are because everyone is against us and they don’t want us to succeed. We would get ahead but the system is stacked against us.” Such beliefs are closely coupled with Black paranoia. However, victim-hood is the internalization of paranoia. Since Blacks believe the cards are stacked against us and the whole world is keeping us down, we become justified in our paranoia. Our failures of a people are not our responsibility. They are the responsibility of those in power who seek to keep us down.

A victim who adopts a victim’s mentality must never take responsibility else they run the risk of being called to action. He will be expected to take charge of his life. Victim-hood is the perfect excuse for inaction. And inaction is always easier because there are no expectations and no failures. “Of course Black kids are joining gangs and killing each other. There’s nothing for them to do. There’s no jobs for them to work at and the city keeps tearing down playgrounds. Of course they are going to find trouble just like any other teenagers.” We wear the excuses like badges of honor. Never mind that Koreans and Ukrainians have quickly gotten their footing and succeeded despite being recent immigrants. “The white government gave them loans to move into our neighborhoods and set up shops. Why didn’t they give those loans to Blacks? We could set up our own shops. No people have had it so bad,” we tell ourselves. “Blacks are the lowest of the low and white America will do anything to keep us at the bottom rung of the ladder.” This is what we believe and we sleep easy as a result.

5. Jealousy/Envy

Deep down, Blacks have intense envy. We want what everyone else has. We want success. We want riches. We want the spoils. We want the fame. We want recognition for our contributions to society. Other groups that move ahead of Blacks become the targets of our envy, jealousy and rage. And the comparisons drive us mad. It’s rubbed in our faces that the Jews have survived thousands of years of persecution and were almost eliminated by the Nazis, yet they prosper throughout the world. The Jews become targets for our intense jealousy. We see the Mexicans flooding the country, moving into our neighborhoods, taking our jobs and compelling institutions to cater to them. Despite American push back on the tidal wave of immigration, Mexicans are given credit for working hard and their sacrifice to work for very little pay. Mexicans become the targets of Black envy.

Black jealousy is so rampant that we are even jealous of each other. One might say the intense competition and gang warfare occurring across our nation’s cities is the result of jealousy in others’ success. In the 1980s, basketball shoes were a major status symbol. They were so coveted that kids were killing each other over sixty dollar pairs of sneakers. Nothing has changed. When Blacks are on the path to success, it is common for members of the community to find ways to hold us back. And if the upwardly mobile manage some success, the community is quick to consider them outcasts for not giving back to the community.

Blacks are not merely envious of what others possess, we are envious of the credit others receive. What is remarkable is that in many cases, there are opportunities to form strong alliances and to learn something from other groups as well as ourselves yet Blacks choose to isolate ourselves in victim-hood and turn potential allies into enemies.

6. Entitlement

The deep envy and jealousy inevitably lead to a sense of entitlement within the community. For all that Blacks have suffered and for all that Blacks have invested through blood, sweat and tears, we want pay back. The dire circumstances within the community only heighten the calls for restitution. America owes us something. It makes no difference whether it takes the form of government reparations or affirmative action programs in the workplace and schools, just so long as America shows some goodwill for all the trouble it has caused Blacks from Columbus’ arrival through the present day. As some tragic events in history have shown, when Blacks don’t get the payback we deserve, we will steal it. When we loot, we steal. When we live out our lives on welfare, we steal. When we expect quotas and affirmative action ad infinitum without measuring progress and continued need, we steal.

Stealing is a rationalization because we feel justified in taking what should be ours in the first place. The longer we receive handouts, the more reliant we become. The more reliant we are, the more eroded our self confidence and will to pull ourselves out of our situation. Restitution may be justified but the sense of entitlement will persist until the community feels it has received adequate payback and that the playing field is leveled. And that will require an admission by Blacks that we are ready to compete and earn what we feel is ours. Viewed in that sense, the price for paying down the debt of entitlement is steep.

7. Exaggerated Success

You know the story. It’s played out every day on the TV screens and across the newspaper headlines. The Black guy makes a little money, he turns around and drops a working man’s yearly salary on diamond studs that swallow both ear lobes. It’s not the spending of the money that makes this part of the Black psychosis, it’s the spending of the money in a way that lets everyone know he has (or had) money. It’s the exaggerated and very public display of success. Heck, even the kid in the projects is blowing every last cent on chrome rims for his rusted out 1975 Chevy Monte Carlo. “If you can’t afford the car, at least buy some rims”, he boasts. Business men and professionals are not exempt in case you thought this was an affliction of the underclass, the drug dealers and the entertainers. The buttoned up professional shows off in a more subtle way but it reeks all the same. He leases a Mercedes when all he could afford was a used Toyota. We have a need to stand out and be recognized. It is imperative that we announce to the world that we made it. A well chosen accessory is the accessory that garners the most attention and respect. And this isn’t merely a pronouncement of pride. Sadly, this is a cry for attention and affirmation. We are telling the world we made it and we expect the world to love us in return. Unfortunately, the plan backfires. The world ridicules us as children who don’t know how to accept success with humility. Stodgy Americans are disgusted by the gaudy display.

Flamboyant accessorizing is an extension of the way we carry ourselves on the field of play, be it an office, a concert stage or a football field. The public has come to expect a style of play and sportsmanship from Blacks. For instance, NBA players routinely dance down the court after an acrobatic dunk. Football players act out choreographed dances following a touchdown. In concert and mid verse, rappers re-create sexual acts with star struck groupies. Blacks say our cockiness is simply self-expression in the heat of competition. We are an expressive people and yes, we rub our competitors’ noses in it. We say it’s a part of normal gamesmanship. White America sees it very differently. Cockiness is disrespectful because it seeks to make others look bad publicly. In other words, it’s the ultimate of poor sportsmanship.

There is nothing wrong with expression and individual style, especially over major events or achievements. It’s human nature to show outward expression of joyful emotions. What is disturbing is how these expressions are often exaggerated over the most trivial accomplishment. A receiver who makes a first down in a football game pops up off the ground and points to the end zone as if to say, “We’re rolling and you can’t stop us.” Never mind that his team is losing by 30 points with two minutes to play in the game. The psychosis isn’t the expression, it is the exaggeration of success and the unquenchable thirst for public adoration and respect.

8. Scapegoating

Those Blacks that are fortunate enough to be in the public eye often find themselves in unfortunate circumstances. When a Black person is under the spotlight, they are a model for the race and we scrutinize everything they do. Inevitably, they do something even the most ardent supporters among us can’t get behind. The community has to face the facts that this person is guilty. It may be a major crime or it could be a simple embarrassing act worthy of public ridicule. Regardless of the severity, everyone in the community gets that nauseating feeling deep in the pits of their stomachs. If the act is bad enough, the person is vilified and considered a discredit to the race. “Why did this idiot have to do this?” “He is giving us a bad name.” “Here I am trying to make it in this world, trying to win people’s respect, and this fool has set us back a hundred years.” Blacks feel ashamed and we scapegoat controversial Blacks as the cause of continued racism and inequality. Yes, it’s a severe reaction. It’s an unfair position to put someone in. It is undoubtedly assigning too much responsibility to an individual. And it gives whites no credit for seeing the public figure as an individual not a representative of all Blacks. But it doesn’t matter. Blacks believe it and our collective scorn is leveled against the evil doer for ruining it for the rest of us.

Scapegoating and representation don’t work only in the negative. Black representatives stand atop a high pedestal within the community. Let’s face it, Blacks feel we are the best at everything. The Black musician, the Black singer, the Black actor, they are all the best at their trade. A Black pitcher throwing to a white batter… guess who all of the Blacks are rooting for? A boxing match between a Black and Mexican fighter, 100% of Blacks are rooting for the Black fighter, guaranteed. And we’ll be damned if we ever lose a 100 meter sprint to a Russian or German. If a U.S. Black can’t win, it better be a Jamaican or Nigerian. Black must always win. In the public eye, each Black is a representative of the race and a central component of our tenuous pride.

9. Empathy

Scapegoating is an emotional reaction to our own inadequacies. Deep down, we have an incredible sense of empathy and an undying support for our brothers and sisters. We often find ways to excuse and rationalize even the most hideous offenses. It’s good to be compassionate and empathetic. But excessive empathy is testament to an intense identification with the wrongdoer. We understand their pain. We believe that deep emotional stress led the person to do horrible things. They are victims as well. We want them to overcome and come out ahead. We want justice served but will secretly rejoice if leniency is shown by the public or the legal system. We feel sorry for our murderers because we understand the pain and rage they feel. The Black stars who fall from grace have our deepest sympathy because we know that society is out to get them and knock them down. “No one wants to see a Black man rise”, we proclaim. Mainstream America may not see this side of us because we may not feel safe in expressing it to them. But even when we shun someone publicly, we usually pull for them privately.

Scapegoating and empathy are two sides of the same coin. In both cases, Blacks have a very hard time disassociating themselves from other Blacks. Despite internal conflicts within the community, Blacks will identify with Blacks that are under public scrutiny. We see them as models not as individuals. We see them as representatives of the race. And what they do becomes part of our collective identity. We are part of the same being. Individually, we have different characteristics and features but, collectively, we are one organism. The psychosis is that we are affected in major ways by the public treatment of our brothers and sisters. We are affected by the perception and scrutiny of those under the public microscope. They are not only our models and representatives, they are ourselves.

10. Hopelessness/Helplessness

Helplessness is felt by many Blacks in different ways. Many of us are so far behind in education and gainful employment that is nearly impossible to imagine our transformation into an empowered people that can rise out of our current situation. Some are living in the shadows of a Jim Crow south. As if it weren’t enough to overcome severe poverty and a lack of education, we are also striving to overcome an insidious form of racial discrimination that is hidden from or shunned by contemporary mainstream America. These people feel helpless.

Despair is rampant. Helplessness is the urban Black youth who is living under a cloud of gang violence, drug peddling, addictions, abuse, rotting schools and corporate abandonment. He is in survival, look out for myself mode because no one will look out for him. He cannot get the most, if anything, out of schools because of the dysfunction, threat of violence and ill equipped teachers. He is not merely undereducated, he is woefully uneducated. How is he going to rise up from his circumstances? The problems are so big they feel beyond anyone’s control. He feels helpless.

Helpless are the Black professionals, tokens in the sterile corporate offices, medical practices, law firms, classrooms and plumbers’ unions. They live in mainstream America and confront racism every day. They see glass ceilings, they remember the communities they left behind, and they feel pain for their less fortunate brothers and sisters. They stand alone, isolated in mainstream America, realizing too few are following in their footsteps. Try as they may, they fail to change the stigma and perceptions of mainstream America. They hear the whispers that say they are the exception, not the rule and they cannot deny it. Racism, prejudice and bias persist and they are helpless to change it. They are resigned.

Helplessness naturally progresses into hopelessness. If people live in a state of helplessness long enough, they lose hope that their situation can change. The Black community has lost hope. We don’t have hope that our situation or social stature will change. We don’t have hope for our children’s future. We don’t have hope that our children will improve upon the lives of their parents. We don’t have hope that the country will change its views of Blacks. We believe that Blacks will continue being the lowest of the low. We don’t have hope that we will break the glass ceiling and realize equality of pay and opportunity. We don’t have hope that we will be free from fear and racial intimidation. We don’t have hope that discrimination will end and we can live in neighborhoods of our choosing. We don’t have hope that we will be treated fairly by the legal system, that cops will stop racial profiling, that juries will stop pre-judging, and that death sentences will be doled out equitably. We lost hope that equality is inevitable.

We, as a people, are chained by false promises. Hopelessness, helplessness and despair find us, no matter where we hide, no matter how we adorn ourselves. A few may survive their torture, fewer still may thrive, but most fall victim to the death grip that chokes the hope from us. Many give up. Many accept that this is all they will ever have and will ever be. They stop dreaming, if they dreamt to begin with. They tell themselves they don’t deserve better. Deep down, we believe we will never overcome.

The Behavioral Progression of Women Impacted by Legalized Abuse

Greed, Power and Control

Hatred is a spirit, capable of wickedness beyond repentance. -Sonya Ward

Slavery, historically was common among ancient people and known as an ‘established institution’ which can be traced back to the Mesopotamian Code of Hammurabi (c. 1860 BC). Before the Civil War (1861-1865), slaves and indentured servants, their descendants included, were considered personal property and could be sold or inherited at the will of their slave masters. Like other assets, human chattel was governed primarily by laws of individual states. At large slavery was first implemented in America in the year, 1619 during which many African’s were apprehended from Africa and transported to Jamestown, Virginia. Decades later, Virginia was one of the first states to acknowledge slavery in its laws, initially enacting such a law in 1661. The law recognized the state in which black slaves were assumed to serve their owners for life (Rodriguez, 2007)

And while America prides itself in all men being created equal, the black man was by no means, considered a man in the same terms as a white man. According to those laws, black people were “persons incapable of making satisfaction by addition of time” (Rodriguez, 2007) Thus, the law was not written with blacks in mind, and it did not apply to blacks because the black man enslaved or otherwise, had no rights in America. The notion of slavery for free labor was initiated at the hands of the Portuguese who saw Africans as a solution to the problem of required labor on sugar cane plantations. The Spanish eagerly adopted similar African slave systems in the Caribbean colonies, and the British followed accordingly in Barbados and Jamaica. North America jumped on the band wagon seeing the value in purchasing cheap African slaves. African slaves became a lifeline to economic growth. 150 years after the Portuguese bought the slaves on the African coast, a million Africans had been transported on European ships to plantations across the America’s. So, it is evident; it’s always been about gain, about money and mind control through fear and punishment by any means necessary to enforce a system that deprived blacks of any quality life. Over time, as larger boats availed, African’s proved to be the labor force of reward. And since the law did not acknowledge blacks, such laws had no concern nor desire to protect the very people that turned sugar, tobacco, cotton and beyond, into extraordinary wealth.

The slave population grew larger as the need for slaves increased notably in the white cotton and tobacco plantations. This brought the fear of uprisings and slave resistance. To ensure that the slaves wouldn’t resist, white men formed organized groups to enforce discipline and monitor the black slaves in the southern states. The people who formed these groups were chosen from the local militia, by captains of militia districts (Rodriguez, 2007). One can imagine the importance of controlling the enslaved to protect the interest of the slave masters and that too was done utilizing the law or an organized policing system, which was law. The organization of these watchmen was first established in the South in 1704. Patrollers were the term used to refer to those who monitored the slaves. Their function was to form river patrols to prevent escape by boat and to police the slaves which included the obedient, wayward, runaways and defiant. With the corporate interest of those who invested in slaves, between the 17th and 18th century, African-American slaves assisted in building the economic strongholds of the new nation, justifying the central importance of slavery which was law, for no personal benefit other than to live long enough to die old.

Not everyone agreed that slavery was just and by the 19th century there was a festering abolition movement in addition to America’s westward expansion that instigated an upheaval over slavery. During this time, the North and South had various issues that separated them; however, the issue of slavery inflamed the passions of both sides (Ollhoff, 2012). This revolt divided the nation which resulted in the Civil War (1861-1865) While the Emancipation Proclamation did not free even one slave, it was an important turning point in the war, transforming the fight to preserve the nation into a battle for human freedom. Eventually, 4 million slaves were freed. This was long after President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. Two years after the Emancipation Proclamation, Congress passed the 13th amendment on January 31, 1865, and sanctioned it on December 6, 1865. The 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States and provides that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime of which the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States.” Yet, even with freedom of law, the footprints of slavery continued to influence American history from the tumultuous years of reconstruction, (1865-1877) through civil rights movement which emerged in the 1960s.

Fast forwarding in time we find that common law was first implemented in England and later in the United States. Though before the birthing of the common law, other systems of law existed as mentioned in prior paragraphs, they were eventually succumbed to the statues within the common law according to the United States. The origin of common law within the U.S. began in the middle ages in the Kings Court later forming several viable ethics by which they continue to stand upon today. Following the American Revolution along with the national government, each state within the United States adopted this common law. Policy development in the United States closely followed policy development in England. Policing took two forms in the early colonies. It was both communal and informal, which is referred to as private-for-profit policing, or “Watch,” or “The Big Stick” (Spitzer, 1979).

The watch system was represented by a community volunteers whose primary duty was to sound the alarm when danger presented. A night watch was initiated in Boston during 1636, another in New York in 1658 and then Philadelphia in 1700. The night watch was not a very efficient approach to controlling crime. Watchmen were either volunteers or those who were ordered to duty as a method of punishment or those evading military assignment. Thus, most were not interested or passionate about doing the work and were frequently lackadaisical. Many of them often slept or drank while on watch. By 1833 Philadelphia created the first-day watch and in 1844 New York instituted a day watch to fortify its new municipal police force (Gaines, Kappeler, and Vaughn 1999).

This paper purposes to imply how a continuum of organized corruption in the legal system or among the powers that be rather political, legal, social or otherwise, not only poses a threat to black America at large but to the perceived black women in general, her image of self and her life outcome despite her socio-economic status. While this issue has impacted blacks in and outside of America, innumerable white Americans and abroad have been scarred and damaged from the existence of ancient laws in support of violence, disfigurement, murder, and molestation against the black race from slavery and even the state of freedom disregarded by racism, hatred and prejudice expressed through modern day police brutality. And to that point, I will draw from the life and experiences of Sarah Baartman to both narrow this discussion and memorialize her life. She was born in the 1770’s, and her death was on December 29, 1815. Her exact age of death is, therefore, unknown but speculated between 25 and 39 years of age. Let us ponder how the law notionally played a part in her life outcomes, as well as the demise of Sarah Baartman, a young, indigenous Khoisan slave that was taken from South Africa and shipped to Europe under false pretense. It is important to add that Sarah gained increasing popularity due to her astonishingly large buttocks, small waistline large breast, and full lips. Because of the enormity of her anatomy and genitalia, she was surmised as nothing more than an anomaly displayed in the nude for all to actively grope and condemn. She was the ‘paradoxical freak’ of sexuality and race, both primitive and alluring (Crais, Scully, 2011). Considering the case, I can’t help but wonder, what about her soul. This took place in Europe, where she was promoted under the show name, Hottentot Venus. Hottentot was an offensive term given to Khoi people because of their abnormally large buttocks, breasts, and features, like Sarah’s. Sarah and another woman were both discovered because they’re body structure far exceeded other Khoi women. Venus, the second part of her show name referred to the Roman Goddess of Love. At any rate, her life’s work was nothing short of a freak show that displayed Sarah in the nude before a crowd of spectators that paid to observe, examine through touching and pervert her anatomy. Furthermore, it is on record that onlookers also paid to repeatedly have sex with her, against her will.

Sarah was chosen because of her framework (body dimensions) which at the time was lusted after, yet publicly ridiculed and debauched. Though my philosophy may be challenging to conceptualize, my intent is to highlight how women today mimic her body type and it is essentially being celebrated and to a strange degree both craved and worshipped, as evidenced by the overwhelming number of women from all races, black included, who are surgically enhancing their bodies with oversized glut matter to acquire the dramatic curvaceous appeal Sarah naturally possessed. Sarah drew men across the world, who paid to see her body. Today women in entertainment once gone nude increase, their net worth. So, as it was encouraged then, it is also now. It’s probably not far-fetched to infer that there is a ‘fake butt’ phenomenon spreading worldwide, despite the health risks associated with the medical procedures.

Sarah “Saartjie” Baartman was brought up on a colonist’s farm in Camdeboo. Sarah spent years on stage in England working for a “free black man” by the name of Hendrik Cesars and a doctor named William Dunlop. Together they used Baartman to draw a crowd and to make money in exchange for being able to see and use her body as they so pleased. However, Cesars’ eventually left the show and in 1814 Dunlop died leaving Sarah unemployed. Later, Henry Taylor brought Baartman to Paris where he sold her to an animal trainer by the name of S. Reaux who forced her to entertain onlookers that frequented the Palais-Royal. It was the founder and professor of a comparative animal Museum who studied Baartman in hopes to prove a correlation between animals and human being. His name was Georges Cuvier. Mostly Baartman’s composition became the foundation for racist science. Despite parading around in the nude to be abused and used for financial gain, to no surprise, she never escaped poverty a day in her life. She died in Paris penniless, of an illness that was not apprised on record. After her death, her body was completely dismembered and dissected by Cuvier. Her remains were displayed in a public Museum in Paris for more than a century and a half. For general observation, the Museum exhibited a plaster cast of her body. Her brain, skeleton, and genitalia were also viewable to the public at large. It wasn’t until 2002 that her body was released and returned to South Africa. Her final resting place is in the Eastern Cape. They chose South Africa’s National Women’s Day to bury her remains.

Modern Day Relevance

Everyone suffers. While it is inconceivable for some people to believe, the pain that is birthed from the occurrences and aftermath of organized crime around slavery, freedom, rights and equal opportunity has an undying sting. Police brutality as we know and condemn it today, in the simplest terms, is an extension of ancient enslavement fortified by the law of the land. The act of police brutality is no more wrong than the act of attacking innocent cops at the hands of angered civilians. Frankly, the anguish is felt on both sides. Since the beginning of time, African-Americans has suffered hatred, antagonism, and assault simply because of the color of their skin. This hatred is hurtful to both races because while many are closed minded, far more are lovers of humanity in all forms sharing, the hope that one day all will be judged by the content of their character, instead of the color of their skin (Martin Luther King). Even still the damage is deeply entrenched in our society and continues to present itself today. Police brutality is evident, just as genocide is. But the hidden damage plays out in the way black women although not exclusive, are manipulated into exploiting their bodies for public display in exchange for money and power.

What’s it worth?

The question is why are women today so comfortable with conforming to nudity to increase their worth, when men don’t have to? And how did they get there? Is dignity of no value? Are there any Christian values left or did they fade in the face of acceptance? These questions are thought provoking and valid and very well may rest on the shoulders of a society driven by the lifestyles of the rich and dangerous. But this would not be possible without the groundwork of total control and chaos. People of color were blocked from learning, thinking and expressing beyond obedience and submission. But history narrates a battery of violent wrongdoings since ancient times that indoctrinated strong-holds like; self-hate, low self-esteem, and worthlessness just to name a few. Seeds of destruction that were invested into people of color (specifically black women) as a direct result of public humiliation and private perversion that distorted any fragment of positive realization. Women held their head down, avoided eye contact and responded in complete submission when speaking with whites. The physical abuse and molestation had overwhelming influence over the way that black women were perceived as no more than disposable sex slaves, used to work, submit to random sex acts regardless if married or single and get thrown away like cattle. To complicate things even further, Black men were immobilized and left powerless respective to protecting their black women and as a result acquired a resentment toward themselves and their women. This played a significant role in black men pursuing women outside of their race to feel special and worthy and perhaps powerful. This, in turn, fortified the concept of inferior beauty among women of color who were losing their men to other races, genders, prison systems, violence and beyond. So, what did she do? She climbed the corporate infrastructure which created an imbalance in black on black households causing a rift between the two. This whole thing plays out leaving many women of color single, insecure, feeling inferior and chasing self-esteem in all the wrong places.

Without clearly knowing what beauty is or where it comes from, beautiful is something every little girl aspires to be and every young man hopes to conquer. Because the concept of beauty is directly associated with acquiring interest, opportunity and above all else love. So, what exactly is beauty? Some would surmise it to be power but it is said that beauty is a combination of qualities, such as shape, color, or form, that pleases the aesthetic senses, especially the sight. That being the case, it is fair to say that beauty is defined as something that pleases the senses. Since it pleases the senses, it is therefore obvious that the concept of beauty is subject to opinion, which makes immeasurable. The question then becomes who defines that standard? The nature of beauty is one of the most fascinating riddles of philosophy and so much more, than what the average mind considers. Perceptions surrounding beauty not only vary by culture, but have greatly evolved over the span of time. However, to be deemed beautiful, your skin had to be fair, your hair had to be blonde and your eyes, as the oceans deepest blue. This is what was projected by society and adored. For years, dating back to enslavement, this standard is also what stripped many women of color of feeling any sense of beauty based on the standard set before her. This by no means defines the psyche of every woman of color but for those that it did impact, it altered her sense of worth and beyond.

For centuries, the beauty and self-worth of black women has been enslaved by a history of hurts. The way she saw herself and her fellow black sisters was seldom perceived on the level of women that fit into the standards driven by society. White beauty was epitomized then and it is now. To support this theory, black achievement in the television and film industry, suffered so long, a dedicated award show was created to acknowledge and celebrate their accomplishments. Actors Will and Jada Smith boycotted the Grammy’s in response to lack of balance amongst the acting community. Although black women are diverse creatures, possessing an array of skin tones, facial features and body types, commonly black women have broad noses, full lips, curvaceous bodies and curly hair. Features that were used to make fun of and demean. Such condemnation was the center of ridicule within the race and outside of the race. African-Americans in general were teased and tormented for centuries. My personal experience as a darker skinned African-American was nothing short of cruelty. Kids teased me for being dark and often called me darkie and tar baby, names that have survived decades of ignorance sown from the period of enslavement until modern times. As years went by, people began to appreciate me, beyond my skin tone. I used to get complements like “you’re so pretty to be dark-skinned” and “you don’t have black features.” I never saw either statement as a complement, rathe an insult, spewed from a shallow mindset.

Confusion was seeded during slavery, as black women became the desire of her slave master. For some, it was about power and control and for others, it became a true love affair. Thus, the very same features that became the private desire of her slave master, was contradicted in public through acts of abuse and humiliation. Visualize how stuck and worthless this made the slave girl feel being regularly seduced by the same person that detests the color of her skin Picture her mindset as he publicly referred to her as heifer, hussy nygra, bitch and so forth. Could this have broken not only the victims being the female slaves, but also the wives of these men, also victims in the process? Might these events then and the act of infidelity and betrayal in as we experience it today be the driving force behind women that pay to enhance their facial features and bodies. White women filling their lips, black women straightening their hair, dark women, bleaching their skin, fair women spending quality time in sun tanning salons. Might they all be damaged goods chasing superficial beauty to become the apple of someone’s eye? Possibly. Because without a healthy perspective and confidence, most are subject to superficiality. Addressing these philosophies, we turn to time which has a way of exposing truth, where we witness the evolution of beauty. Case by case women began to address their lack of confidence and self-esteem with scientific break throughs that would promise to make them the crave of the times. Women from all walks of life have tapped into beauty by choice through plastic surgery. All in the name of acquiring power. Profoundly many women purchase the physique of Sarah Baartman. In my humble opinion, an act of desperation pursued to escape the shadows of misfortune our enslaved ancestors and innocent victims, bravely weathered.

To date, subconsciously women of color make drastic changes to their bodies, even risking their very lives, to please their masters. Modern day masters are low self-esteem, vanity, the men in their lives, or perhaps the media. The common practice of butt augmentations, fillers, lip injections, and breast implants have become a phenomenon. In some cultures, women are mocked and seem as poor in character for not investing in body perfection. Needless to say, these choices represent their unspoken response to the notion of not being good enough or pretty-enough. Therefore, they take drastic measures to be liked, loved or even worshipped like the iconic images of celebrities that lead millions of women to distant meaningless paths just to feel beautiful. Beauty is power and without one, the other does not exist in today’s whirlwind around self-acceptance. The cosmetic industry is increasingly being fattened from the explosion of consumer demands in the cosmetic world. Products and procedures that promise to deliver fair or deepened skin, ginormous boobs and butts, suddenly long hair, as well as lip injections to have lips appearing plump and full are at the top of the list for too many women to number. It appears to be the century for self-hate and have it your way. My argument is that the underlining problem began with hate. Hate inwardly and outwardly because it takes hate to establish and fuel hate. There is no God in hatred. The bible teaches us that God is not present in the midst of confusion. The absence of God, delivers the presence of evil. Evil tormented a multitude of souls then and it does so now. Today many might agree that the misguided and unconsciousness of Sara Baartman can be found in extreme changes our women thirst for. Sarah had no choice, we do, yet we exploit ourselves making her tragic death a mockery. Its established that people model themselves after their favorite celebrities. Sadly, this enslavement haunts some of our most famed celebrities. For example, Kim Kardashian, Iggy Azalea, Little Kim, K. Michelle and Nicki Minaj, each of them celebrities, deemed the most beautiful women in the world and yet they stop at nothing to win over their master, be it money, power or respect. Is it far-fetched, to entertain the idea that women that chase to opportunity to become someone else are also enslaved in their reasoning? And are products of eons of lies, miseducation and stolen identity. That they too are victims of Willie Lynch’s diabolical syndrome? That the probability of such hatred and manipulation, much like the purpose of genocide is what has captured all women, although intended for women of color. These notions are subjective and by consideration, conjured from a very personal perspective. But there is a theory that brings relevance to this hypothesis. The Willie Lynch syndrome. In theory, slave master lynch proved that by dividing and conquering slaves, you could enslave their blood line for 300 plus years. Lynch guaranteed his method. Implying that if the method were properly carried out, without failure it would control slaves for generations to come even in freedom.

“My method is simple and members of your family and any Overseer can use it,” says a document of the speech, although some question its authenticity. “I have outlined a number of difference(s) among the slaves, and I take these differences and make them bigger. I use fear, distrust, and envy for control purposes. I make them hate themselves and destroy each other.”

Under the theme “United We Stand, Divided We Fall,” the WLS (Willie Lynch Syndrome) pervades present day society by creating a divide in the African-American community. This has proven to be responsible for the Black-on-Black violence because it creates conflicts between different neighborhoods.

“This is a direct result of the WLS when it states, ‘whether the slaves live in a valley, on a hill, east, west, north, or south.’ Where is the logic in this? First, we were being killed off by other races, now we’ve taken it into our own hands with gun violence,” “What does this say about us as people? More importantly, are we too far gone to save our race or even willing to try?”

Respective to the validity of the WLS, damn is all that comes to mind. -Sonya Ward

In theory, many believe that although blacks are no longer enslaved, the damaging effects have had a profound and lasting impact on the way innumerable African-Americans think. And it is categorized by the conscious and unconscious mind. While the conscious have received healing, and are now free of the rippling effects of the WLS, those that sleep, suffer blindly. It’s a hard pill to swallow knowing that mind control imparted during slavery has enslaved the mentality of a people. Its results, self-hate, fear, low self-esteem, lack of interest and underachievement. Traits that have been demonstrated in the inability to relax, embrace their culture comfortably, without judgement and question. Free to be themselves safely, securely and soundly in a world that has found strength in diversity and cultural difference. Essentially, the speech that Willie Lynch delivered in 1712 exposing methods of control is as a poison, alive and at work to destroy the feeble, but it doesn’t have to be. In conclusion with this knowledge, and through self-observation and honesty, the behavioral progression and outcome of women of color as well as men of color, can no longer be bound to the gripping effects of organized witchcraft and legalized violence exercised against them. With confidence, it is not impossible for suppressed people to rise above the strongholds that condemned their right to holistic, peace, happiness and self-realization. It won’t be an easy quest and it certainly cannot birth overcomers operating out of an unconscious framework. One must desire illumination avoiding rejection of truth even when it disrupts comfort zones. It would be pure folly to imply ease of change in light of, deeply embedded moving parts. Admittedly, while I am to empower, mere words often frustrate me, in that they often over simplify complexities extreme in nature. But words that do possess, the power of life and death. Applicable to all life matters. Being powerful does not require illegal activities or returning evil for evil. Just like being beautiful is not something you can achieve by people pleasing. Beauty is a knowing and a reflection of something far deeper than fads that expire over time. We must all inquire of ourselves why we think as we do and challenge ourselves to think on a higher critical scale. The worth of humanity has never been planted in his or her image but in the heart which is the driving force that ignites world change and the measure by which his maker surmises his life’s meaning. Knowing is half the battle and rebelling against behaviors that suppress us buries the poison and the witch.


Crais, C. C., & Scully, P. (2011). Sara Baartman and the Hottentot Venus: A ghost story and a biography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gaines, L. K., Kappeler, V. E., & Vaughn, J. B. (1999). Policing in America. Cincinnati: Anderson Pub.

Ollhoff, J. (2012). The Civil War: Slavery. Minneapolis, MN: ABDO Pub. Co.

Rodriguez, J. P. (2007). Slavery in the United States: A social, political, and historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Spitzer, & Stephen. (1979). The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society. Contemporary Crisis 3, no. 1.

Ward & Ward (2017). MP3 Production & Spoken Word: The Behavioral Progression of Legalized Brutality Among Women of Color

A Believer’s New Life in Christ

When we become Christians we enter a New Life. Some people believe this New Life comes about by obtaining a new character. This is far from being true. A new character can be a change in moral or legal correctness brought about by one’s own efforts. A person can change his/her moral character by treating others differently and getting rid of bad habits. A person can change his/her legal character by obeying the laws when they have been negligent in obeying them in the past. The New Life the Apostle Paul writes about in Galatians chapter five does not come about by self-efforts, but is produced by the Holy Spirit. This New Life comes about because the believer has done to his old nature the same thing that was done to Jesus Christ on the cross, Gal 5:24, “And they that are Christ’s have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts”. In other words, every one is born into sin and remain dead in trespasses and sin until they express faith in Jesus Christ. At that time we are crucified with our sins and trespasses and made alive in Christ. Ephesians 2:1 says “We were dead in trespasses and sins but Christ has quickened us” (made us alive).

As a Christian, since we have chosen this New Life we need not just hold it as an idea in our heads, or a sentiment in our hearts. We must work out the implications of the New Life in every detail in our lives.

We must first work out the implications of the New Life in our body.

The New Life has been produced by the Holy Spirit and must be carried out in the Spirit. Gal 5:25 says, “If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit”. The Holy Spirit must direct our steps as we move toward Christian maturity. If we are living and walking in the Spirit our lives will show it. Gal 5:26 says, “Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provoking one another, envying one another”. Christians living the New Life will no longer seek the glory of men. The glory of men is vain glory because it will not profit the Christian anything. Christians living the New Life will not provoke others. They will not look upon others with contempt, or cause hatred to produce a desire for them to take revenge. Christians living the New Life will not envy others. They will not compare themselves with others as if they were better or worse.

The New Life calls for cooperative attitudes and actions with all people. In Galatians chapter 6 the Apostle Paul puts all Christians in one of three classes.

The Case of the Sinning Brother: Gal 6:1, “if a man be overtaken by a fault”. In these words, Paul recognizes that even one whose life is guided by the Spirit may stumble and fall into wrong doing. One who is born again does not deliberately plan to sin, but may be tempted by Satan and yield to the temptations because of head strong passions or lack of thought. The idea of Paul’s message here is the picture of one who is a victim of sudden temptation which has produced an unexpected lapse in the brother’s spiritual growth.

The cooperative action and attitude called for regarding the sinning brother is described in the next words of Gal 6:1, “restore such a one in the spirit of meekness”. Restore means to repair and to bring back into a useful condition. Paul was meaning here to set the sinning brother to rights; to bring him back into line; to put him back on the road of right living. The restoring must be done in the spirit of meekness. The quality most needed to be a restorer is meekness. Religious zeal need not be harsh and overbearing. We must always consider Jesus’ treatment of sinners when helping a sinning brother. Many useful reproofs loose their effectiveness if given in wrath. When reproof is managed with calmness and appear to come from sincere affection and concern for the welfare of those whom the reproof is given, it is likely to make a good impression. Another reason for restoring in the spirit of meekness is also given in Gal 6:1, “lest thou also be tempted”. We need to deal tenderly with brothers who have been overtaken in sin, because we don’t know that sometime it might be our own case.

The Case of the Burdened Brother: Gal 6:2-5. Paul not only recognizes that even one whose life is guided by the Spirit may stumble and fall into wrong doing, Paul also recognizes he will also find himself burdened down from time to time.

The cooperative action and attitude called for regarding the burdened brother is described in Gal 6:2, “Bear ye one another’s burdens”. In dealing with the sinning brother Paul’s emphasis was on tolerance. In dealing with the burdened brother Paul’s emphasis shifts to action. Christians must do more than set a fallen brother on his feet. We should lend a helping hand so the brother won’t fall again. There are many burdens which press a person down. A person is often pressed down under the weight of disappointment, anxiety, tension, weariness, and the plain pressures of every day living. If we leave our brother to stagger alone and eventually sink under his load when we could have helped him by shouldering part of his burden we are doing less than is expected of us, and we deserve reproach. The result of our 0utworking here when helping a burdened brother is found in the next words of Gal 6:2, “and so fulfill the law of Christ”.

Paul was not speaking in legalistic terms. He is referring to a life-principle of a much greater and deeper meaning than merely following a set of rules. The law of Christ is to love, help, and give comfort. We can only satisfy the requirements of Christ-likeness by showing concern for all those who face the ravages of a cold and heartless world. The greatest hindrance to this cooperative action is self-importance based on self-ignorance. Gal 6:3, “For when a man think himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceiveth himself.” If a person imagines himself free of burdens or so above weakness, sorrow, or short-comings that he shall never need help, he will completely be disinterested in helping others bear their burdens. Paul does not mean we should belittle ourselves or that our attitude should be that we are unfit to perform any work for the burdened brother. We must maintain a worthy opinion of ourselves, yet we must also realize that any ability we possess has been given by God and conveyed to us through Jesus who infuses strength within us.

The Case of the Teaching Brother: Gal 6:6, “Let him that is taught in the word communicate unto him that teacheth in all good things”.

The cooperative action and attitude called for regarding the teaching brother applies to our treatment of teachers. Paul had been speaking about our attitude toward inferiors, those who had fallen, whom we are tempted to despise. Then he spoke about those who had fallen under the burdens of this world, those whom we are expected to help. He is now speaking about our attitude toward superiors whom we are tempted to neglect. If a person is harsh in treating the weak, he is likely to show rudeness and insubordination toward the strong. When a person is self-centered and self-sufficient, he is likely to show a cold contempt toward his inferiors and a jealous independence of those above him. A proper realization of our weaknesses will make us treat our inferiors correctly, and a proper realization of our obligation to God will make us deal properly with those who teach us. It is proper duty of those who are taught in the Word to support those who are appointed to teach them.

Questions to challenge us. How are we working out the implications of our New Life in Jesus Christ? Are we living and walking in the Spirit? Do we have a cooperative attitude toward all our brothers and sisters in Christ? To the sinning brother – an attitude of meekness that will help restore him and bring him back into a useful condition for God. To the burdened brother – an attitude to help him bear his burdens in order to fulfill the law of Christ. To the teaching brother – an attitude of support to those appointed to teach and to communicate to them in all good things. Remember, the New Life is much more than self-efforts to change our character. The New Life is just what it says it is: A New Life because the old life if gone.